Herbal-V with Tongkat Ali 90 Vegetarian capsules
Each capsule contains 6 herb synergy of:
-50mg (Eurycoma longifolia) Tongkat Ali root bark 200:1 Extract (Standardized 2.4% Eurycomanone)
-50mg Nettle root extract
-50mg Sarsaparilla extract
-50mg Siberian Ginsing Extract
-50mg Saw Palm Extract
-50mg Epimedium Extract (Horny Goat Weed)
-Increased energy and stamina
-Maintain higher natural testosterone levels
-Lower SHBG (Sex hormone binding globulin)
-Improved sexual performance
-Increased fat metabolism
Take 2 capsules 2-3 times a day.
Two in the morning with breakfast
Two with lunch and
Two in the early evening.
Can be taken every day of the week but it’s recommended to take 2 days off after five consecutive days to prevent building tolerance.
It takes 200KG of Tongkat Ali Rootbark to make 1KG of 200:1 Extract
Eurycoma longifolia, commonly known as Tongkat Ali, long jack, or Malaysian ginseng, is a plant found in the Malaysian rainforest [R].
It is best known for its ability to enhance libido, testosterone levels, erectile function, sexual performance, and fertility in men, giving it the name “Malaysia’s home-grown Viagra” [R].
However, this plant also has a variety of other benefits including:
- Promoting bone formation [R]
- Increasing muscle strength and athletic performance [R]
- Improving physical and mental energy levels and overall quality of life [R, R]
- Reducing anxiety and stress [R]
- Anticancer effects [R]
- Antimicrobial and antifungal effects [R]
- Antiulcer effects [R]
- Antioxidant effects [R]
- Lowering blood sugar [R]
The stem and root extracts of the Eurycoma longifolia plant contain:
- Quassinoids (e.g., eurycomaoside, eurycomanone, pasakbumin-B): These compounds have anticancer, antiparasitic, and antiulcer effects [R, R, R].
- Alkaloids, which have anticancer and antibacterial properties [R, R, R].
Mechanism of Action
- Stimulating the production of testosterone from pregnenolone and 17-OH-pregnenolone
- Blocking aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogens
Tongkat Ali helps with male osteoporosis by [R]:
- Stimulating bone cell growth (via testosterone)
- Increasing the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme that plays a role in the development of bones and teeth
- Enhancing the deposition and mineralization of collagen
Tongkat Ali improves gut health by [R]:
- Reducing excess stomach acid, which helps prevent ulcers
Health Benefits of Tongkat Ali
1) Tongkat Ali May Increase Testosterone
A 5-week pilot study of 25 seniors found that Tongkat Ali increased testosterone levels and muscle strength in both men and women [R].
Tongkat Ali supplementation also increased testosterone levels in a 4-week study of 76 men with hypogonadism (an impaired function of the testes) [R].
However, in a 15-week study (DB-RCT) of 13 recreational athletes, Tongkat Ali did not increase testosterone levels in the urine, prompting the researchers to conclude that it does not breach the International Olympic Committee doping policies [R].
Tongkat Ali significantly increased testosterone levels in rats [R].
2) Tongkat Ali Improves Male Fertility
A 12-week study (DB-RCT) of 109 men (ages 30 to 55) found that Tongkat Ali increased sperm motility and semen volume compared to placebo [R].
In another 9-month study of 75 males with infertility, Tongkat Ali supplements improved semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm quality, thereby enhancing fertility [R].
Studies in rats also showed that Tongkat Ali reversed the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and increased sperm production, count, concentration, motility, and vitality [R, R, R].
3) Tongkat Ali Improves Male Sexual Health
A 12-week study (DB-RCT) in 109 men found that Tongkat Ali increased libido and improved erectile function compared to placebo [R].
Similarly, a 12-week study (DB-RCT) of 26 men found that a freeze-dried water Tongkat Ali supplement improved sexual performance and increased the hardness and duration of erection [R].
4) Tongkat Ali May Enhance Muscle Strength
Tongkat Ali supplements increased muscle strength in both men and women in a 5-week pilot study of 25 seniors [R].
Similarly, in a 5-week pilot study of 14 healthy men, Tongkat Ali increased muscle strength and size and improved athletic performance [R].
5) Tongkat Ali May Promote Weight Loss
Tongkat Ali reduced fat mass, waist circumference, and hip size compared to placebo in a 12-week study (DB-RCT) of 109 men [R].
Another (pilot) study in 14 healthy men showed that Tongkat Ali supplements increased muscle strength and size while decreasing body fat after 5 weeks [R].
Tongkat Ali also reduced body weight and belly fat in mice. However, it did not affect the weight of the internal organs [R].
6) Tongkat Ali May Treat Male Osteoporosis
Tongkat Ali strengthens bones by [R]:
- Increasing testosterone levels
- Stimulating the production of osteoblasts, or bone-forming cells
- Triggering the death of cells that break down bone tissue (osteoclasts)
- Decreasing bone loss and preserving bone mass
Thus, it may be used for male osteoporosis treatment.
However, in another study, Tongkat Ali did not restore testosterone levels and bone volume in the castrated rats with osteoporosis [R].
7) Tongkat Ali May Reduce Stress And Anxiety
A 4-week study on 63 moderately stressed people showed that Tongkat Ali root extract reduced stress hormone (cortisol) levels, tension, anger, and confusion [R].
Tongkat Ali also reduced the frequency of fighting episodes and increased exploratory behavior in mice [R].
8) Tongkat Ali May Enhance the Immune System
In a 4-week study (DB-RCT) of 83 subjects, Tongkat Ali supplements increased T cells, CD4+ T cells, and naïve T cell numbers, which enhanced overall immune function [R].
9) Tongkat Ali May Reduce Blood Sugar
Tongkat Ali reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic rats [R].
10) Tongkat Ali May Decrease Blood Pressure
In rats, Tongkat Ali widened blood vessels, which lowered blood pressure [R].
11) Tongkat Ali Decreases Pain And Inflammation
In the lab, Tongkat Ali exhibited antioxidant (free radical scavenging) and anti-inflammatory properties [R].<1>
These anti-inflammatory effects appear to also help allergies, reduce nasal congestion, help with arthritis, and more.
Health Benefits of Stinging Nettle
1) Stinging Nettle Can Reduce Inflammation
In a study (RCT) of 37 arthritis patients, combining stinging nettle tea with diclofenac (an anti-inflammatory drug) enhanced the drug’s anti-inflammatory effects [R].
In mouse immune cells (macrophages), stinging nettle extract was as effective at reducing inflammation as a standard treatment (Celastrol). Both of them were powerful antioxidants and anti-inflammatory [R].
2) Stinging Nettle Helps Relieve Allergies
Taking stinging nettle supplements helps decrease allergies. Scientists believe this may be due to the plant’s ability to reduce histamine production and reduce inflammatory markers, but more research is needed to confirm this [R].
In one study, 57% of patients were said to have rated nettle as ‘effective’ in helping allergies, with 48% even saying nettle was more effective than allergy medications they had used previously [R].
3) Stinging Nettle May Increase Free Testosterone
Free testosterone is how much testosterone is in the blood that’s not in use at the time and bound to SHBG. The more testosterone that’s not bound to SHBG, the more free and usable testosterone there is available for the body. Testosterone that’s bound to SHBG is unusable to the body [R].
Stinging nettle contains a substance called 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran, which binds to SHBG. Bodybuilders have traditionally used that substance to increase free testosterone [R].
So while nettle does not seem to increase total testosterone in the blood, it does appear to increase usable testosterone levels by binding to SHBG, making more testosterone available for use by the body [R, R].
Certain chemicals from stinging nettle (known as lignans) are the specific molecules responsible for its affinity to bind to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and increase free testosterone. [R].
There is also evidence that stinging nettle reduces the conversion of testosterone into estrogen, an effect that is increased by adding saw palmetto. It acts on the enzyme (aromatase) that converts testosterone to estrogen, but not on testosterone receptors [R].
4) Stinging Nettle May Decrease Blood Sugar
In a study (DB-RCT) of 92 subjects, stinging nettle extract lowered fasting blood sugar levels and other blood sugar levels when compared with the placebo [R].
A leaf extract of stinging nettle improved blood sugar balance in mice and helped with insulin resistance, which delayed the onset of type 2 diabetes [R].
5) Stinging Nettle Might Reduce Blood Pressure
Stinging nettle stems and leaves may lower blood pressure but could increase the risk of blood pressure dropping too low. In rats, stinging nettle acted on the kidneys to exhibit these effects [R].
6) Stinging Nettle as a Diuretic
Diuretics (or water pills) are medications designed to increase urine production. They can help remove excess sodium and water from the body. The leaves and stems specifically from the stinging nettle seem to increase urine flow and act as a diuretic [R, R].
- Treating high blood pressure
- Compensating for poor kidney function
- Reducing bloating <2>
Molecules in sarsaparilla might help decrease joint pain and itching, and might also reduce bacteria. Other chemicals might combat pain and swelling (inflammation), and also protect the liver against toxins.
Increases Sex Drive
One of the more traditional uses of sarsaparilla was to increase the libido of men and women in an effort to increase. Some of the organic compounds found in this root extract have been shown to increase blood flow and boost sperm motility, thereby increasing the chances of and improving overall sex drive.
Boosts Immune System
The naturalproperties of sarsaparilla berries and the compounds in the roots make this herbal supplement a wonderful way to increase the strength of your immune system. The antibacterial properties can also help prevent on the skin and generally improve your response time to cold and other common illnesses.
Although research is still ongoing to determine the exact chemical pathway for this health benefit, it appears that sarsaparilla is able to suppress appetite. This means that for those trying to lose weight, adding this supplement can curb your cravings and keep you from cheating on your diet.
The antibacterial properties of sarsaparilla are one reason why the topical application of this extract (in salves and creams) is so popular. The antioxidant content can also improve the appearance and health of the skin. By eliminating wrinkles and reducing the appearance of age spots, when applied or consumed, it can keep you looking young!
Detoxifies the Body
Sarsaparilla has long been used as a diuretic, which means that it stimulates urination in those who consume it. For people who want to purify their body or detoxify in some way, a diuretic can eliminate excess fats, salts, toxins, and water from the body. Furthermore, it has been known to purify the blood, thereby increasing overall health and reducing strain on the liver and kidneys.<3>
What is Eleuthero?
Eleuthero is an herb that has been used in the traditional medical practices of China, Korea, and Russia [R]. These traditions all describe eleuthero as an adaptogen, or substance which normalizes bodily responses [R]. Adaptogens can be especially useful in periods of stress, which can result in negative hormone or mood changes.
In the West, Eleuthero has been frequently branded as ‘Siberian Ginseng,’ most likely as an attempt to benefit from the popularity of the well-known Asian ginsengs, and to encourage comparison with their adaptogenic benefits [R]. However, Eleuthero is not a member of the ginseng plant family, which includes the popular Asian and American ginsengs [R]. It also does not contain the compounds known as ginsenosides which provide many of the adaptogenic benefits associated with ginseng. However, Eleuthero contains its own set of unique compounds, called eleutherosides, which have distinct adaptogenic benefits [R]. Modern research has helped to support and explain some of these claims.
Health Benefits of Eleuthero
1) Eleuthero Boosts the Immune System
Eleuthero boosts the immune system by increasing immune cell production. Supplementation of eleuthero root extract in animal studies resulted in increased level of the antibody molecules Immunoglobulins G and M, which help protect the body from microbes [R].
Eleuthero also boosts the immune system by promoting natural detoxification processes in the liver. Eleuthero extract has been proven to help the liver process harmful toxins including alcohol, sodium barbital, and tetanus toxin [R].
Eleuthero extract also has antioxidant benefits which can preserve cellular health. In periods of oxidative stress, cells can be damaged by reactive molecules known as oxygen radicals. Several compounds in eleuthero were found to bind to and neutralize oxygen radical molecules, preventing cellular damage [R].
2) Eleuthero Reduces Inflammation
The pain-relieving drug naproxen sodium (brand name Aleve) works by inhibiting COX-2, an enzyme involved in activating inflammatory pathways [R]. Eleuthero decreases the expression of COX-2, which can help to reduce and prevent inflammation [R],[R1].
Eleuthero reduces the excess inflammatory response associated with allergic rhinitis [R]. It also reduces the excess mast cell activity seen in allergic reactions, which reduces allergic inflammation [R].
3) Eleuthero Improves Athletic Performance
Eleuthero was also found to alleviate mental and physical fatigue in response to physical stress from exercise in animal studies [R].
Studies in athletes have also shown that eleuthero increases performance by prolonging endurance time, increasing heart rate, and decreasing glucose levels in the blood [R].
Eleuthero supplementation also improves blood flow [R]. This could also contribute to a faster recovery time from exercise.
4) Eleuthero May Reduce Stress
Studies of eleuthero supplementation demonstrate a lower negative response to stress and a faster recovery from stress.
Eleuthero decreases the time needed to recover from stress in animal studies [R].
Eleuthero was also found to alleviate mental and physical fatigue in response to physical stress in animal studies [R].
Eleuthero also reduced stress-related changes in behavior in sleep-deprived animals [R].
5) Eleuthero Improves Symptoms of Diabetes
Eleuthero extract has been shown to improve blood sugar levels, insulin usage, and blood lipid levels, all of which are contributors to the negative effects of diabetes.
Usage of eleutheroside E in type 2 diabetic mice resulted in reduced blood glucose levels by reducing the resistance to insulin [R]. Eleutheroside E was found to promote the function of pancreatic β-cells, which make insulin [R].
The eleutheroside components eleutherans A, B, C, D, E, F, and G are each effective in normalizing blood sugar levels in a laboratory setting [R].
Eleuthero also shows promise in animal trials as a lipid-lowering agent, improving cholesterol and triglyceride levels [R]. In conjunction with carnitine supplementation, eleuthero was found to reducing the body weight increase and cholesterol levels from a high-cholesterol diet in animal studies as well [R].
6) Eleuthero Improves Memory
In animal studies, eleuthero modestly enhances the neuronal communication related to learning and memory [R].
This improvement of neuronal communication seen with eleuthero supplementation could benefit patients with Alzheimer’s Disease, who are known to have a decrease in this function [R].
High stress levels are detrimental to memory and mental performance [R]. The stress-reducing effects of eleuthero could also help restore memory deficits caused by excess stress.
Oxidative stress is also highly associated with age-related memory impairment [R]. The antioxidant action of eleuthero could help reduce memory impairments through this mechanism as well.<4>
What Is Saw Palmetto?
Saw palmetto is an extract of the berry of the saw palmetto tree (Serenoa repens) that is native to Southeast North America [R].
Saw palmetto has been used for centuries in Asia and North America for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) [R]. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate.
The Seminole tribe in Florida used the herb to treat urinary and sexual problems [R].
The plant gained recognition in the United States when it was listed as an official remedy in the US Pharmacopoeia in 1906. Since the 1990s it has been one of the top 10 most sold herbs in the U.S, with more than 2 million men using the herb regularly [R, R].
In Europe, saw palmetto is the most popular herbal supplement used to treat BPH. Global sales of the herb total more than $700 million annually [R].
Saw Palmetto’s Mechanisms Of Action
- Saw palmetto inhibits 5-reductase, an enzyme that converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) [R].
- Saw palmetto blocks 1-adrenoceptors [R, R].
- Saw palmetto reduces the activity of several inflammation-related genes [R].
Benefits Of Saw Palmetto
1) Saw Palmetto May Treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a growth of the prostate that is not due to cancer. It is very common in older men [R]. Nearly 40% of American men over the age of 60 and 90% of men over 80 have BPH [R].
However, a study in 100 men aged 45 and older found no difference in treating BPH after 72 weeks of saw palmetto (DB-RCT) [R].
Finasteride (Propecia) is a prescription 5-reductase inhibitor that is commonly used to treat BPH. A year-long study found that saw palmetto was more effective than finasteride in treating excessive nighttime urination. It was less effective in treating other symptoms related to BPH [R].
A study of 2,008 men found that 72 weeks of saw palmetto was no more effective than a placebo in the treatment of BPH [R].
A 2002 Cochrane review concluded that saw palmetto was effective in treating BPH. However, a 2009 Cochrane review that included larger and longer trials found that saw palmetto had no effect on BPH [R, R].
A 2016 review only included trials with a special standardized extract of saw palmetto called Permixon. Permixon was effective in improving urinary symptoms of BPH compared to placebo. It was just as effective as finasteride in treating BPH [R].
This suggests that the lack of an effect found in the most recent Cochrane review was due to the differences in the saw palmetto extracts used.
2) Saw Palmetto May Improve Urinary Tract Symptoms
Saw palmetto may treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). LUTS is a range of symptoms that include [R]:
- Painful urination
- Increased frequency of urination
- Incomplete bladder emptying
- Weak stream
- Excessive nighttime urination
A study in 225 patients showed that 12 months supplementation with saw palmetto along with lycopene, selenium, and tamsulosin was effective in the treatment of LUTS [R]. Tamsulosin is a drug commonly used to treat symptoms of BPH.
A study (DB-RCT) in 85 men with LUTS found that saw palmetto given over 24 weeks was more effective in improving symptoms than placebo [R].
Another study (DB-RCT) in 369 men with LUTS aged 45 years and older found that saw palmetto extract given over 72 weeks was no more effective than placebo [R].
Excessive urination during the night (nocturia) can cause insomnia and sleep deprivation, which decreases productivity and quality of life [R].
Saw palmetto extract significantly decreased the number of nighttime urinations compared to a placebo and two other drugs used to treat excessive nighttime urination (DB-RCT) in men with LUTS [R].
3) Saw Palmetto Increases Hair Growth in Male-Pattern Baldness
Saw palmetto is commonly used to treat hair loss caused by male-pattern baldness (androgenic alopecia). Male-pattern baldness is the loss of hair in men due to genetics and too much dihydrotestosterone [R].
A study with 50 men with male-pattern baldness found that saw palmetto taken daily for two years increased hair growth on the top (crown) of the head [R].
A case report found that a 24-year-old woman with pattern hair loss responded to treatment with saw palmetto [R].
One study found that topical saw palmetto products were able to increase hair growth in 50 men with male-pattern baldness [R].
4) Saw Palmetto May Improve Sexual Function
Saw palmetto has traditionally been used to treat erectile dysfunction and improve sexual function [R].
A pilot trial showed a significant increase in sexual function in 82 men aged 30 and older [R].
Note: This study was funded by the manufacturer of the brand of saw palmetto used (Prostasan).
Another study found no significant difference between saw palmetto and a placebo in treating sexual dysfunctions [R].
5) Saw Palmetto May Increase Testosterone Levels
By decreasing the conversion of testosterone to DHT, saw palmetto can increase testosterone levels.
One study saw a significant increase in testosterone after three months of 320 mg saw palmetto [R].
An unblinded study (RCT) in 32 men found that 80 mg saw palmetto extract twice a day for six days increased testosterone levels compared to placebo [R].<5>
What is Icariin?
Icariin is an active flavonoid component of the Epimedium plant species commonly known as Horny Goat Weed. Extracts from these plants have long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for enhancing libido and male sexual function [R].
Due to its widespread distribution and movement in the body including the brain, icariin exhibits far-ranging biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, neuroprotection, anti-tumor activity, as well as promoting overall health in the heart, bones, and a variety of other organs [R, R].
The Health Benefits of Icariin
1) Icariin Improves Erectile Dysfunction and Increases Sex Drive
Icariin inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), an enzyme that breaks down cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) [R].
PDE5 inhibition stimulates the NO/cGMP pathway and improves reproductive function in animal models.
This is due to increased cGMP and nitric oxide levels which lead to smooth muscle relaxation, widening of blood vessels and increased blood flow to the penis, facilitating erection [R].
Chronic treatment of icariin was shown to suppress penile smooth muscle cell death in multiple animal studies [R].
Additionally, icariin was shown to significantly increase pelvic nerve length when cultured with nerve fragments, indicating that it may enhance penile rehabilitation in humans [R].
Icariin was also shown to increase free testosterone levels in rats [R].
Research indicates that high levels of testosterone are correlated with increased sexual desire in aging males and females, suggesting that icariin may act as a natural aphrodisiac in individuals with diminished libido [R, R].
2) Icariin Reduces Dementia and Enhances Cognitive Function
Beta-amyloid peptides (Aβ) are proteins that cause plaque formation and cell damage in Alzheimer’s disease [R].
Icariin was shown to markedly decrease β-amyloid-induced toxicity in rat adrenal embryonic cells (by inhibiting tau protein hyperphosphorylation, a key biological marker of Alzheimer’s disease )[R].
This is likely due to activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, which plays a critical role in cell survival [R].
Icariin improved dementia in aluminum-intoxicated rats by reducing oxidative damage and β-amyloid deposits in the hippocampus. This is in part due to increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that reduces oxidative damage [R].
In rat models with induced brain inflammation, short-term icariin treatment was found to improve spatial learning and memory abilities. This effect is thought to be due to the lowering of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-B as well as COX-2, an enzyme responsible for fever, inflammation, and pain) [R].
Icariin can also suppress neuroinflammation by inhibiting the activation of microglia, macrophage-like cells in the in the brain nervous system that play a pivotal role in initiating the neuroinflammatory response [R].
The anti-inflammatory effect of icariin may be attributed to its inhibition of the NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways, which are involved in microglia and proinflammatory marker activation [R].
Another animal study showed that icariin lessened cognitive decline by increasing BDNF and its receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB [R].
In rats with stroke, Icariin protects against cognitive deficits by increasing acetylcholine metabolism in the hippocampus, a key neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory [R].
In addition, Icariin can enhance cognitive function via stimulation of the NO/cGMP pathway. Elevated levels of cGMP and nitric oxide (via icariin inhibition of PDE5) improves brain blood flow, synaptic plasticity, neurovascular dysfunction, and β-amyloid elimination from the hippocampus (memory center) and cortex [R, R, R].
Due to its potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and anti-amyloid activity in the brain, icariin may serve as a promising therapeutic option for cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia [R, R].
3) Icariin is Neuroprotective and Promotes Neurogenesis
Icariin was found to suppress neurotoxicity by maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat hippocampal neurons [R].
Icariin was also found to inhibit β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity (by increasing CART (cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript) in cortical neuron cells). Found widely in the brain, CART functions in preventing energy loss and preserving mitochondrial function [R, R].
Mitochondria are known to play a key role in increasing energy production for neuronal survival during a stroke [R].
SIRT1 activates the PGC-1alpha pathway, which is known to promote mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism [R].
Also, SIRT1 can reduce oxidative stress, a key factor involved in protein and DNA damage in the cell [R].
4) Icariin Lowers Stress and Acts as an Antidepressant
The HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis plays a role in mitigating physiological responses to stress, with hyperactivity implicated in depressive and anxiety disorders [R].
Thus icariin may act as an antidepressant by decreasing HPA axis hyperactivity through inhibition of CRF and cytokine levels in depressive patients [R].
5) Icariin Stimulates Bone Growth and Repair
Icariin increased hip and lower spine bone density in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone destruction (bone break down) marker deoxypyridinoline and maintaining osteocalcin, a bone formation marker [R].
Icariin stimulated the generation of cultured human bone (osteoblast) cells by increasing bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) production, a key protein involved in bone and cartilage formation [R].
Icariin was also found to enhance production of primary osteoblasts (by increasing bone formation markers ALP, osteocalcin, COL-1 and OPG and decreasing RANKL, a protein involved in osteoclast formation) [R].
Icariin inhibits the formation and bone-resorbing action of osteoclasts by increasing OPG/RANKL ratios in bone cells [R].
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is known to inhibit RANKL activity which plays a role in osteoclast formation and bone destruction [R].
In addition, Icariin can suppress osteoclast formation by decreasing superoxides, reactive oxygen species that are required for osteoclast survival and activity [R].
Icariin can inhibit cartilage and bone degradation in arthritic mice (by inhibiting cathepsin K, an enzyme that breaks down cartilage and bone) [R].
6) Icariin Promotes Heart Health
Icariin improved heart function and reduced tissue death in rats with an acute heart attack (myocardial infarction) by activating the PI3K-Akt pathway, which plays a critical role in cell survival [R].
Icariin prevented heart muscle cell death during reoxygenation following an acute heart attack by increasing Bc1-2 (an anti-cell death factor) and decreasing Bax ( a pro-cell death factor). These effects are in part due to activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, which increases Bc1-2 in heart muscle cells [R].
In another study, icariin inhibited heart muscle cell death by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in rats with heart failure. MMPs are enzymes involved in heart remodeling after injury [R].
Icariin improved heart function by reducing oxidative damage in the mitochondria of diabetic rat hearts [R]. Icariin improves blood flow to the heart by widening heart vessels via inhibition of Ca2+ channels, which helps reduce the risk of heart stroke and tissue death [R].
Hardening of arteries (atherosclerosis) is a common cause of stroke and heart attack. Icariin can reduce the risk of hardening of the arteries by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood [R].
Multiple studies show that icariin can promote new heart muscle cell formation by inducing cell death, increasing reactive oxygen species generation, and activating the P38 MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways in mouse embryonic stem cells, indicating that icariin may have a potential application in heart tissue engineering [R, R, R].
7) Icariin Stimulates Blood Vessel Formation
New blood vessel formation improves stroke-related tissue injuries and wound healing by increasing oxygen and nutrients to the affected area [R].
Icariin can stimulate blood vessel growth (by activating the MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathways) in human blood vessel cells. These pathways are associated with the generation, movement and structural shaping of blood vessel cells during blood vessel growth [R].
8) Icariin is Anti-inflammatory and Immunoprotective
Icariin was able to reduce intestinal inflammation and improve disease symptoms in mice with irritable bowel syndrome (by inhibition of STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation which is responsible for activating and increasing Th1 and Th17 T-cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines) [R].
Icariin improved airway inflammation in asthmatic rats (by adjusting the Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung tissue). Icariin also inhibited the activation of the NF-κB pathway in lung tissue, which is involved in inflammation [R].
Another study showed that icariin decreased lung inflammation (by inhibiting pro-inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and iNOS in the lung via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibition of NF-κB) [R].
Icariin increases the production of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in mouse macrophages. TLR9 is a protein that functions in pathogen recognition and activation of the innate immune response [R].
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which T-cells attack them in the brain nervous system (CNS), causing axon damage and disability. Icariin was found to improve disease symptoms in mice with induced MS (by suppressing the production of T cells and Th1 and Th17 cells) [R].
9) Icariin May Combat Fatigue
A study showed that icariin was able to reduce physical fatigue and increase endurance in mice during a weight loaded swimming test.
It was found that icariin increased blood glucose, hemoglobin and glycogen levels, factors which are known to improve speed, endurance, and exercise ability.
Icariin also decreased blood lactic acid (BLA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels indicating that icariin might reduce protein breakdown for energy and delay the buildup of lactic acid, both factors known to prevent fatigue [R].
10) Icariin Protects DNA and Delays Aging
Icariin delays aging in mice by increasing SIRT6. SIRT6 is an enzyme that promotes DNA repair and energy metabolism and inhibits the NF-kB pathway, which is involved in cellular aging, death, and inflammation [R].
Icariin also delays aging in worms by promoting stress resistance, muscle function, and movement, and preventing protein build up toxicity [R].
11) Icariin May Help Acne
A study showed that Icariin was able to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes biofilm formation in part by killing the bacterial cells. Propionibacterium acnes is a bacterium linked to the skin condition of acne, indicating that icariin may be used as a natural anti-acne drug [R].
12) Icariin May Help Premature Ejaculation
In a double-blind, randomized control trial, PDE5 inhibitors can prolong the time that it takes to ejaculate [R].
- Inhibited PDE5 [R]
- Increased cGMP [R]
- Increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide [R]
- Increased free form testosterone in the blood [R]
- Inhibited tau protein [R]
- Decreased superoxide [R], increased SOD activity and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and β-amyloid in the hippocampus (memory center) [R]
- Inhibited NF-kB [R], IL-6, TNF-a, IL-1b and COX-2 in the hippocampus (memory center) [R, R]
- Elevated BDNF in the hippocampus (memory center) [R]
- Increased acetylcholine in the hippocampus (memory center) [R]
- Increased CART [R]
- Increased SIRT1 and PGC-1a, catalase [R, R]
- Decreased CRF, cortisol [R]
- Increased bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) [R], ALP, osteocalcin, COL-1, and OPG, decreased RANKL [R]
- Activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway [R]
- Inhibited MMP activity [R]
- Decreased creatine kinase (CK), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [R]
- Reduced levels of total cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol in the blood [R].
- Inhibited STAT1 and STAT3 [R].
- Increased blood glucose, hemoglobin and glycogen levels, decreased blood lactic acid (BLA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels [R].
- Inhibited insulin/ IGF-1 [R]<6>
L-Arginine is the physiological precursor of nitric oxide (NO), an important mediator of vasodilation.<7>
Combining L-Arginine with Tongkat Ali 200:1 Extract can synergize effects of vasodilation.
*These statements have not been evaluated by the TGA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.